Although there were European incursions into the Canary Islands since the 13th century, it was not until the beginning of the 15th century that colonization or conquest began… with the corresponding evangelization of the aborigines and their sale as slaves. But here the evangelizing and economic interests collided:the Church sent its representatives to spread the word of God and get new souls for its cause while Castile and Portugal, in dispute over the territoriality of the islands, captured aborigines, including the recently baptized, to be sold as slaves.
If the natives who had seen the light could also be sold into slavery, this would mean that embracing the new religion would not have a good press among the local population and, therefore, that the ceremonies of collective baptism would decrease. So, Pope Eugene IV took action on the matter and on January 13, 1435, he promulgated the bull Sicut Dudum
The reign of Philippe Auguste and his victorious struggle against the powerful Plantagenets, claimed by the prestigious victory of Bouvines, made it possible to considerably consolidate the power of the Capétiens. France now sees a succession of great kings on its throne. The reign of Louis IX who became Saint Louis is one of the most significant. It is marked mainly by several crusades:two crusades against the Muslims (seventh and eighth) and a bloody crusade against the Albigensians started by his predecessors.
The reign of Louis VIII the Lion
Louis VIII is the son of Philippe Auguste and Isabelle de Hainaut. He distinguished himself mainly during the reign of his father, notably by winning the victory of La Roche-aux-Moines against Jean sans Terre. He even nearly obtained the crown of England which the rebellious English barons offered him. Philip II, sure of his power, had not deemed it necessary to consecrate his son during his lifetime, as the previous Capetians had done. History proved that he was right:on his death in 1223, Louis VIII ascended the throne. The new king already has a lot of experience for having reigned alongside his father for a long time. Louis VIII continued the fight against the Plantagenets, capturing Poitou, Saintonge, Angoumois, Périgord and part of Gascony in quick succession. These lightning conquests earned him the nickname “The Lion”. In 1226, Louis led a crusade against the Albigensians where a mysterious heresy took root. He lays siege to Avignon, but suddenly dies of dysentery (one speaks of deliberate contamination of water sources). This short three-year reign came to an abrupt end, yet it promised to be promising and radiant.
The storming of the Bastille, on July 14, 1789, had put an end to the royal authority, very quickly the revolutionary gear was put in place. The devastation of castles throughout France was a valid pretext to suppress feudalism. On this night of August 4, the deputies of the Constituent Assembly abolished the tithe, the salt tax, the right to hunt as well as all the privileges of the Old Regime. These principles were immortalized by the “Declaration of the rights of man and of the citizen”:separation of powers, religious freedom, equality in law, but this declaration retained the inviolable character of private property. However, universal suffrage is not enforced, gender equality is not respected, and other principles of equality were not implemented in the constitution.
The Constitution of 1791
The Assembly of Deputies of 1789 now finds itself the role of Constituent Assembly, it must draw up a new constitution for France and continue the implementation of reforms. In 1791, the Constitution was definitively drawn up. Louis XVI retained executive power but lost his title of King of France in favor of that of King of the French. He is the head of the armies, appoints the senior civil servants and his ministers, he signs the treaties but he can only declare war with the agreement of the Assembly. This assembly holds the legislative power. But this first constitution turns out to be clumsy in many areas, and the Assembly has no power over the executive and vice versa, so there is no coordination between the two movements. Only active citizens (paying a direct tax equal to three working days) are invited to elect delegates (paying a tax for ten working days) who will vote for deputies.